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Statistical Glossary

Age Specific Fertility Rates (ASFR)
Balance of Payments
Building Permits
Census Agglomeration
Census Division
Census Family (see Family, Census or Economic)
Census Geography
Census Metropolitan Areas
Census Subdivision
Census Terminology
Census Tract
Classification Systems
Constant Dollars
Consumer Price Index/Cost of Living
Designated Place
Development Region
Dissemination Area
Economic Accounts
Economic Dependencies
Economic Family (see Family, Census or Economic)
Economic Multipliers
Economic Region
Electoral Areas
Employment Income
Employment Insurance
Employment Rate
Enumeration Area
Establishment, Business
Ethnic Origin
Experienced Labour Force
Exports, Merchandise Trade
Family, Census or Economic
First Nations
Free on Board (F.O.B.)
GDP/GNP (see Economic Accounts)
Harmonized System (HS)
High Technology
Housing Starts
Imports, Merchandise Trade
Income Assistance Recipient
Incorporations (business formations)
Indian Reserve
Indian Settlement
Input/Output Model
Labour Force
LICO (Low Income Cut-Off)
Life Expectancy
Manufacturing Shipments
NOC-S (National Occupational Classification for Statistics)
NAICS North American Industrial Classification
Non-Family Person (see Family, Census or Economic)
Occupation (see NOC-S or SOC)
Participation Rate
Population Projections
Personal Income/Personal Disposable Income (see Economic Accounts)
Poverty (see LICO)
Provincial Electoral Districts/Ridings
Random Rounding
Regional Districts
Re-Exports (see Exports)
Sample Survey
Seasonal Adjustment
Small Business
SOC (Standard Occupational Classification)
Standard Geographical Classification (SGC)
Subdivision (see Census Subdivision)
Total Fertility Rates
Unattached Individual (see Family, Census or Economic)
Vehicles, Licensed

Aboriginal Used with Census and Labour Force Survey data. Refers to a person of Aboriginal ancestry or who identifies as Aboriginal; i.e., North American Indian/First Nations, Métis or Inuit or of mixed Aboriginal or Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal ancestry. Aboriginal origin persons are those who indicated one or more ancestries was Aboriginal; Aboriginal identity persons are those who indicated that they identified as an Aboriginal person or were a band member or were Registered under the Indian Act. The Profiles of Aboriginal Peoples are based on the identity concept. An Aboriginal family is one where one or more parents identifies as Aboriginal; an Aboriginal family household is a household which includes one or more Aboriginal families and may have other persons present; an Aboriginal non-family household is one where at least fifty percent of household members identify themselves as Aboriginal. See Indian and Northern Affairs Canada for more discussion on terminology.

Age Specific Fertility Rates ASFRs represent the average number of births to 1,000 women of the specific age group. All figures are calculated using the average of two consecutive July 1st populations and Census Year (July 1 to June 30) period births of the year stated.

Balance of Payments The B of P Current Account presents Canada's receipts (exports of goods and services) and payments (Imports of goods and services) when ownership changes, rather than when the goods/services move. The Capital Account records capital transactions. The adjustment of Customs based imports and exports to a Balance of Payments basis include trade definition, valuation and timing related adjustments. Customs based merchandise trade statistics cover the physical movement of goods as reflected by Customs documents. Balance of payments adjusted data are intended to cover all economic transactions between residents and non-residents which involve merchandise trade.

Bankruptcies Bankruptcy is a legal process performed under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. Because of inability to pay debts, all assets are assigned, except those exempt by law, to a licensed trustee in bankruptcy. A Business Bankruptcy is a bankruptcy (under federal legislation) which is chiefly attributable to the liabilities incurred as a result of the carrying on of a commercial venture or business and includes proprietorships, partnerships and Limited Companies. A Consumer bankruptcy is one identified where an individual has not incurred liabilities as a result of a business venture or where liabilities attributable to a business venture constitute less than 50% of the total liabilities.

Building Permits The number of residential units authorized and the value of permits are collected from almost all issuing bodies (municipalities and regional districts); no estimation is made for non-reporting entities. The value includes the following expenditures: materials, labour, profit and overhead. The type of structures include new buildings, additions, alterations and renovations. Data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial and institutional and government.

Census A survey that collects data from all the members of a population, whether it's people or businesses. The most common use of the term "Census" is the population Census of Canada which is taken at 5-year intervals which counts persons and households and a wide variety of characteristics. In fact, some of the Census questions are asked on a sample basis i.e. every fifth household receives a long-form questionnaire asking additional questions.

Census Agglomeration A CA is formed by one or more adjacent municipalities centred on a large urban area (known as the urban core). The Census population count of the urban core is at least 10,000. To be included in the CA, other adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the central urban area, as measured by commuting flows derived from Census place of work data. If the population of the urban core of a CA declines below 10,000, the CA is retired. When a CA has an urban core of at least 50,000 based on Census counts, it is subdivided into Census tracts. Census Tracts are maintained for the CA even if the population of the urban core subsequently falls below 50,000. See The Census Dictionary for more detail.

Census Division (CD) A generic term used by Statistics Canada for regional geographic areas larger than municipalities. In BC, these equate to Regional Districts. CDs are further broken into Census Subdivisions. See The Census Dictionary for more detail.

Census Geography The Census uses standard legal geography respecting the boundaries of regional districts, municipalities and Indian Reserves, and, in 2001, the Regional District Electoral Areas, to disseminate data. Statistical areas, such as Census Metropolitan Areas, Census Agglomerations and Census Tracts have been created in consultation with local authorities to provide another basis for data analysis. See The Census Dictionary for more detail. Maps of CMAs, CAs, and CTs are available.

Census Metropolitan Areas A CMA is formed by one or more adjacent municipalities centred on a large urban area (known as the urban core). The Census population count of the urban core must be at least 100,000 to form a Census metropolitan area. To be included in the CMA, other adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the central urban area, as measured by commuting flows derived from Census place of work data. Once an area becomes a CMA, it is retained as a CMA even if the population of its urban core declines below 100,000. All CMAs are broken into Census Tracts. See The Census Dictionary for more detail. Maps of CMAs are available.

Census Subdivision The CSD is the general term for municipalities (as determined by provincial legislation) or areas treated as municipal equivalents for statistical purposes (for example, Indian reserves, Indian settlements and unorganized territories). With the 2001 Census, Regional District Electoral Areas (unorganized areas) became CSDs. Prior to 2001, unorganized Census Subdivisions were determined in consultation with the Province and were arbitrarily named Subdivision A, B, C etc. Many unoccupied Indian Reserves in BC have not been identified as Census Subdivisions. Subdivisions, including municipal, Indian Reserve and unorganized area subdivisions add to Census Divisions. See The Census Dictionary for more detail.

Census Terminology See The Census Dictionary for 2001.

Census Tracts CTs are small, relatively stable geographic areas that usually have a population of 2,500 to 8,000. They are located in Census metropolitan areas (CMAs) and in Census agglomerations (CAs) with an urban core population of 50,000 or more in the previous Census. See The Census Dictionary for more detail. Maps of CMAs and CAs, by census tract and of individual census tract by Dissemination Areas, are available.

Classification Systems These have been developed primarily by Statistics Canada so that standard definitions are used in survey collection, analysis and dissemination. Classifications change over time to meet changes in society and the economy. Common ones are the Standard Geographical Classification (SGC), the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC 1991 and earlier), National Occupational Classification for Statistics (NOC-S 2001 and 2006), the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC 1980 and earlier) and North American Industry Classification (NAICS 2012 and earlier). These systems are used for Census and other surveys. Concordance tables show comparisons of the coding schemes when classifications change.

Community A loosely defined term that could mean a municipality, near municipality or unorganized settlement. Some data which is geographically created by grouping postal codes do not match municipal boundaries exactly; e.g., Community Fact Sheets draw on a variety of sources, some which define boundaries exactly and some which do not.

Constant Dollars (K$) Dollar value adjusted for price change and expressed in terms of a "constant" year. The concept is widely used in the Economic Accounts.

Consumer Price Index/Cost of Living The CPI is a measure of price change in the cost of a basket of consumer goods and services. Cost of living is a misnomer as it implies a dollar cost one might require to live. COLA (cost of living adjustment) clauses have been common in union contracts/wage settlement agreements particularly in times of high inflation and normally use the CPI to adjust for inflation. The CPI, expressed in terms of a base year which equals 100, is designed to be used to calculate the percentage change over time for an area (i.e. BC, Vancouver, Victoria). It cannot be used to compare prices between areas. See this useful guide on the concepts, calculation and uses of the CPI.

Designated Place (DPL) A DPL is normally a small settlement that does not meet the criteria used to define municipalities or Census subdivisions. They are created in consultation with local authorities, the provincial government and Statistics Canada. With 1996, it became an area for which Census data is compiled. See The Census Dictionary for more detail.

Development Region These are groupings of Regional Districts defined by previous economic development agencies, used for analysis in some reports. Referred to as Economic Regions by Statistics Canada, they are used to publish Labour Force Survey results. Maps of BC Development Regions are available. Groupings of Regional Districts into Development Regions are as follows:
- 5910 Vancouver Island and Coast: RDs of Alberni-Clayoquot, Capital, Central Coast, Comox-Strathcona, Cowichan Valley, Mount Waddington, Nanaimo, Powell River
- 5920 Lower Mainland - Southwest: RDs of Fraser Valley, Greater Vancouver, Squamish-Lillooet, Sunshine Coast
- 5930 Thompson - Okanagan: RDs of Central Okanagan, Columbia-Shuswap, North Okanagan, Okanagan-Similkameen, Thompson-Nicola
- 5940 Kootenay: RDs of Central Kootenay, East Kootenay, Kootenay-Boundary
- 5950 Cariboo: RDs of Cariboo, Fraser-Fort George
- 5960 North Coast: RDs of Kitimat-Stikine, Skeena-Queen Charlotte
- 5970 Nechako: RDs of Bulkley-Nechako, Stikine
- 5980 Northeast: RDs of Northern Rockies, Peace River

Dissemination Area A DA is a small (400 to 700 persons), relatively stable area, created for the first time in the 2001 Census, and is the smallest geographic area for which an array of Census data is produced. Prior to 2001, the Enumeration Area was the smallest unit for which data was published. See The Census Dictionary for more detail. Maps of DAs are available.

Economic Accounts The Gross Domestic Product and associated tables including Personal Income and Personal Disposable Income.

Economic Dependencies Local area economic dependencies identify the sources of income which support local economies and are used to estimate the impacts on employment and income changes in those sources.

Economic Multipliers The ratio of total economic impacts associated with a given project or policy to the direct expenditure.

Economic Region Used by Statistics Canada for the Labour Force Survey, the geography of these regions are the same as the Development Regions. Economic Regions had once been a differently configured set of regions used by the BC Government and are no longer in use.

Electoral Area A relatively small geographic region used for electing representatives of unorganized areas to Regional District Boards. For the first time with the 2001 Census, Electoral Areas were used as Census Subdivisions in the unorganized areas of BC.

Employed/Employment A term used by the Census for those at work Census week and those not at work for reasons of illness, family responsibility, vacation or labour dispute, but excludes those on layoff or with a job to start at a future date. See The Census Dictionary for more detail. The concept is consistent with the Labour Force Survey, referencing Labour Force Survey week. For details see the Guide to the Labour Force Survey. Both the Census and the Labour Force Survey exclude institutional residents; in addition, LFS excludes persons living on Indian Reserves and full-time members of the armed forces.

Employment Income Remuneration received from employment. Used in the Census to include both working for others and self-employment. See The Census Dictionary for more detail. In income data based on Income Tax returns, employment income excludes self-employment income which is shown separately.

Employment Insurance A program of Human Resources Development, Employment Insurance (EI) provides temporary financial help to unemployed Canadians while they look for work or upgrade their skills, while they are pregnant or caring for a newborn or adopted child, or while they are sick. Persons must contribute to the plan and qualify under the rules.

Employment Rate The ratio of the number employed to the population. Used in both the Labour Force survey and the Census. See The Guide tothe Labour Force Survey

Enumeration Area An EA is a geographic area canvassed by one Census representative. Prior to the 2001 Census, it had been the smallest area for which an array of Census data was available. See The Census Dictionary for more detail.

Establishment, Business The statistical establishment as defined by Statistics Canada's Business Register, is the smallest operating entity capable of reporting all elements of basic industrial statistics. For example, a large forest company may be broken into a number of establishments at it's different locations and activities such as logging, sawmilling, pulp and paper. However, a business, such as a bank, could be considered a single-establishment company, counted only once in the province where the head office is located with no indication of the number of branches across the country. As a result the number of business establishments tends to be understated.

Ethnic origin Used in the Census, ethnicity describes a person's ancestry; multiple responses were permitted. Prior to the 1981 Census, ethnic origin was based only on male ancestry and only one response was allowed. See The Census Dictionary for more detail.

Experienced Labour Force Used in the Census, Experienced Labour Force is used in industry, occupation and class of worker tabulations. It includes those in the labour force in Census week, either employed or unemployed, but excludes those unemployed who had not had a job since January 1 of the year previous to the Census. See The Census Dictionary for more detail.

Exports, merchandise trade Domestic exports include goods grown, extracted or manufactured in Canada, including goods of foreign origin which have been materially transformed in Canada for which Customs documents must be filed, destined for foreign market(s). Re-exports are exports of goods of foreign origin which have not been materially transformed in Canada, including foreign goods withdrawn for export from bonded customs' warehouses. Exports are the sum of domestic exports and re-exports. Canadian exports to overseas countries are valued F.O.B. port of exit, including domestic freight charges to that point but net of discounts and allowances. Since 1990, Canadian exports to the USA have been valued F.O.B. point of exit from Canada. A commodity classification, the HS is used for merchandise exports. See also Balance of Payments.

Family, Census or Economic A Census Family is a husband and wife (including common-law) or same-sex couple (new with 2001 Census) without or with children (without spouse or children) at home or a lone parent with children at home. Check The Census Dictionary for details as changes have occurred in definitions from previous censuses. This Census Family concept is used both in the Census and other family estimates and income studies. An Economic Family is a group of persons related by blood, marriage, common-law or adoption sharing the same dwelling unit. Used in the Census, particularly in relation to low income data and in other income surveys. Persons not in a Census Family are termed "Non-family Persons"; persons not in an Economic Family aged 15+ are termed "Unattached Individuals". See also Income Trends in Canada: User's Guide.

First Nations has come into common use to replace the term North American Indian. This is the meaning in BC Stats documents. See Indian and Northern Affairs Canada for more discussion on terminology.

F.O.B. Canadian exports and imports are valued F.O.B. (Free on Board), place of direct shipment from/to Canada. It excludes freight and insurance costs in bringing the goods to Canada from the point of direct shipment.

Harmonized System (HS) In 1988, Canada replaced it's uniquely Canadian export (XCC) and import (MCC) commodity classification systems with the internationally recognized Harmonized System of Commodity Description and Coding. Structured on chapters of goods with on common features, the first 6-digits of the code is used internationally. For exports, the 7th and 8th digits are statistical and determined by Canada; for imports, the 7th and 8th digits relate to the tariff while 9th and 10th digits are statistical.

High Technology Like Tourism, high technology is not a standard industry classification. Definitions of what constitute high technology vary, but generally it includes cutting edge technology in the computer, engineering, aerospace, military, health and biotechnology fields.

Household A person or group of persons who occupy a dwelling unit constitutes a household. The concept is used extensively in the Census but annual estimates and projections of households are also produced by BC Stats Population Section. See The Census Dictionary for more detail.

Housing Starts A measure of new residential construction, housing starts include only such units designated for non-transient year-round occupancy. Excluded are conversions, vacation homes, cottages, collective dwellings and mobile dwellings. The survey is carried out monthly by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation in population centres of 10,000+ with a sampling of smaller communities 4 times a year.

Immigrant A person who is (or has been) a landed immigrant, that is, a person who has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by Canadian immigration authorities. In the Census, immigrants are the total count of those resident in a geographic area; data is available by country of birth, period of immigration to Canada, and age at time of immigration. See The Census Dictionary for more detail. Immigrant landings data provides the number of immigrants who physically arrive in Canada during a specified period; data is available by country of last permanent residence. For definitions of the classes of immigrants see the immigration glossary.

Imports, merchandise trade Imports include all goods which have crossed Canada's territorial boundary, whether for immediate consumption in Canada or stored in bonded customs warehouses. The value for duty under GATT is equivalent to the price actually paid. Canadian imports are valued of direct shipment to Canada and exclude freight and insurance costs in bringing the goods to Canada from that point of direct shipment. A commodity classification, the HS is used for merchandise imports. See also Balance of Payments.

Income Generally referring to money income, this term is used in the Census as well as sample surveys and the Economic Accounts and can be per capita, or for persons, households or families with income. Income data based on tax returns will be for tax returns filers or for those filing taxable returns. Check data sources and survey questionnaires to determine what income is included. Note that for tax purposes some types are income are not included in taxable income which are included in total income e.g. provincial income assistance. Many income sources provide some breakdown on source of income.

Income Assistance Recipient As used in tables by BC Stats, Income assistance recipients are those in the Temporary Assistance category under the BC Employment and Assistance program. Excluded are Children in the Home of a Relative and those on Continuous Assistance. The program was previously called BC Benefits.

Incorporations (business formations) Incorporations are the number of new limited companies registered under the Company Act. The address shown on a new business registration, often a lawyer's address, may be in a different community in than that in which it carries on business, thus under or over reporting the new businesses attributed to an area. Not included are sole proprietorships or partnerships.

Indian Reserve Tract of federally owned land that has been set apart for the use and benefit of an Indian Band and which is governed by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Occupied or potentially occupied Indian Reserves are treated as Census Subdivisions. See The Census Dictionary for more detail.

Indian Settlement A place where a self-contained group of at least 10 Indian people reside more or less permanently. It is usually located on Crown land under federal or provincial jurisdiction but doesn't have the status of an Indian Reserve. Statistics Canada relies on INAC to identify Indian settlements to be recognized as a Census subdivision; this is in agreement with the province. There are 3 Indian settlements in BC which are Census subdivisions, two in Stikine Region and one in Peace River Regional District. See The Census Dictionary for more detail.

Index A number used to indicate magnitude relative to some base, usually set at 100. The most familiar is the Consumer Price Index, where the relevant measure is the percent change between indexes (time periods). Indexes can also be spatial such as the Inter-City Index of Retail Price Differentials where one city equals 100 and the other cities' price levels are expressed relative to that.

Inflation Commonly used to describe an increase in prices, it is frequently calculated with the Consumer Price Index which measures price change in consumer goods and services. However, a variety of other price indexes exist which may be more appropriate for particular applications. For example, a set of Industry Price Indexes measure price change in industrial goods, construction price indexes may be appropriate for that sector, import and export price index look at traded goods, the price deflator for the Gross Domestic Product may be appropriate if one is looking at inflation across the whole economy. Do a search on Statistics Canada's web site.

Input/Output Model The I/O model is a way of understanding and estimating how changes in one industry can affect other industries.

Labour Force The term labour force is used in both the Census and the Labour Force Survey and includes the employed and unemployed. Both the Census and the Labour Force Survey exclude institutional residents. In addition, LFS excludes persons living on Indian Reserves and full-time members of the armed forces. See The Census Dictionary for more detail.

LICO Low Income Cut-Offs are income levels used in the analysis of low income among the population. The income levels were established using a 1992 Family Expenditure Survey where it was found that families in Canada spend on average, 44% of their after-tax income on food, shelter and clothing. Then 20 points are added bringing the proportion to 64% of income. This is done on the grounds that a family spending more than this proportion of its income on necessities is significantly worse off than the average family. From that it was determined what the income levels would be, using both family size and urban area size, at which families were spending 64% or greater of their income on necessities. These are updated annually using the Consumer Price Index. LICOs are used in the annual Statistics Canada data tables "Income Trends in Canada" and with the Census data. Human Resources Development Canada has recently released results of a new approach termed the Market Basket Measure.

Life Expectancy The average number of years a person may expect to live given the present mortality experience of a population.

Manufacturing Shipments Based on a sample survey of Canadian manufacturers, shipments are defined as the value of goods manufactured by establishments that have been shipped to a customer. Shipments exclude any wholesaling activity or revenue from the rental of equipment or the sale of electricity. For aerospace products and shipbuilding, the value of production is used rather than the value of shipments.

Migration Used both in the Census and in BC Stats population estimation and projection activities. In the Census, a person's address was asked one year and 5-years ago. A migrant was anyone with a change of address except for those whose move was within the same Census Subdivision. See The Census Dictionary for more detail. Migration or net migration is a component of population change. Quarterly estimates of population flows into and out of the province are available in PopulationHighlights. Annual estimates of flows of population in and out of Regional Districts are available. Net migration appears as a component of population change in the provincial (and small area) population estimates and projections.

Municipality The term municipality is used to refer to a legal entity, in BC, a city, town, village or district municipality. See also Community.

National Occupational Classification for Statistics (NOC-S) Statistics Canada's occupational classification is called the National Occupational Classification for Statistics to distinguish it from the National Occupational Classification (NOC) of Human Resources Development Canada. (The two classifications differ only in the aggregation structure of the classification). Both provide a complete listing of all the categories under which Canadian jobs are classified and their descriptions. The first use of the NOC-S was in the 2001 Census of Population. The NOC-S 2001 was preceded by the Standard Occupational Classification 1991, used for the 1996 Census. For the Labour Force Survey, starting with January 1999, the occupation classification SOC91. SOC91 is fundamentally different from the previous classification system used by the LFS (SOC80) and comparisons of data based on each classification are meaningless, at any level of aggregation. LFS provides historical data based on SOC91 back to 1987. These historical data were created by imputation.

North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) NAICS was developed as a standard occupational system for Canada, the USA and Mexico. For an introduction of NAICS see this article. An online version of the NAICS manual and concordance with the SIC is available. The NAICS update is referred to as NAICS 2012. In Canada, NAICS replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) for industry coding.

Participation Rate The Participation Rate in the Census and Labour Force Survey is the labour force as a percentage of the population. See The Census Dictionary and the Guide to the Labour ForceSurvey for more detail.

Population Population, as used in the Census includes citizens of Canada and landed immigrants resident in Canada and abroad if living on a military base or attached to a diplomatic mission or aboard a merchant vessel of Canadian registry. Included also are refugees and their families living with them and persons holding student or employment authorizations or a Minister's permit to stay in Canada. These latter four categories are called non-permanent residents. Foreign residents are not included. The population has two principal components; the institutionalized and the non-institutionalized which has a further sub-set of population in private households. Although a few Census variables are for the total population (age, gender, marital status, language), many (referred to as 20% sample) are for the non-institutionalized population only. Population, as used by the Labour Force Survey, excludes residents of Indian Reserves, full-time members of the Armed Forces and institutionalized persons. Population estimates include the total population as defined for Census purposes. See The Census Dictionary. Population as used in the Labour Force Survey are non-institutionalized persons 15 years and older excluding permanent members of the armed forces and residents of Indian Reserves. See the Guide to the Labour Force Survey

Population Projections BC small area population projections are based on the Component/Cohort-Survival method requiring projections of each of the components of population change, fertility, mortality and migration. With base year age-specific estimates of population, a projection for any subsequent year is made by promoting each age to the next highest age while at the same time taking into account births, deaths and net migration. Assumptions relating to migration, births and deaths by small area are based on past conditions, modified wherever possible to take into consideration possible future changes. Consequently the projections should be taken as only one possible scenario.

Production Used to refer to the output of a facility such as a mine or manufacturing establishment, production is often measured in physical volumes. Check source documents for information on the valuation of production.

Provincial Electoral District/Riding A geographic region for representation in the provincial legislature. Census population profiles are available for these areas.

Random Rounding A method used with Census data to protect confidentiality, every published figure (other than total exact population) is randomly rounded up or down to the nearest multiple of 5, with the exception of numbers under 10. Numbers smaller than 10 are rounded to zero or 10.

Regional District A region created by the provincial government in the late 1960's for the delivery of certain services; regional districts cover all of the province with the exception of the northwest area called Stikine Region. Regional districts including Stikine are used by Statistics Canada as Census Divisions.

Sample Survey A survey that draws on a representative sample of the population to survey as a proxy for the whole population. For example, the Labour Force Survey.

Seasonal Adjustment Fluctuations in economic time-series are caused by seasonal, cyclical and irregular movements. A seasonally adjusted series is one from which the seasonal movements have been eliminated. Seasonal movements are defined as those which are caused by regular annual events such a climate, holidays, vacation periods, and cycles related to crops, production and retail sales associated with Christmas and Easter. On an annual basis, the historic series of seasonally adjusted data are revised in light of the most recent information on changes in seasonality.

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) The 1980 SIC preceded NAICS as the standard for classifying businesses; it was very similar in structure to the 1970 SIC which had needed updating to accommodate the significant changes in the kinds of businesses that entered the economy during the 1970s. An online version of the NAICS manual and concordance with the SIC is available. The SIC is used for industry coding both in the 1996 Census and had been used for the Labour Force Survey as well as many business surveys.

Small business The definition of what constitutes a small business varies with the study. The most common definition used by BC Stats is a business employing fewer than 50 employees or a business operated by a self-employed individual with no paid help.

Socio-Economic The term refers to studies/indicators looking at both social and economic conditions relevant to well-being. Regional Socio-Economic Indicators on BC Stats' web site have relied on statistical indicators which are uniformly available for all regions of the province on an ongoing basis.

Standard OccupationalClassification System (1991 SOC) The SOC 1991 was used for occupational coding in the 1996 Census and for the Labour Force Survey. It is similar in structure to the NOCS 2001.

StandardGeographical Classification (SGC) The coding system used to define geographic areas primarily for statistical purposes by Statistics Canada and some other federal and provincial agencies including BC Stats, defines both legal and statistical areas. Boundaries of legal areas change (e.g. a municipality annexes more land) but it's code usually will not change. Similarly statistical areas change over time as they may grow to meet criteria - e.g. Abbotsford moved from being a Census Agglomeration to become a Census Metropolitan Area. A new SGC is created with each Census reflecting those changes and adding new municipalities etc. (e.g. Wells, Nisga'a) that have come into being since the previous Census.

Total Fertility Rates TFRs represent the average number of births 1,000 women could have if their lifetime fertility was the same as the ASFRs (the average number of births to 1,000 women of the specific age group). All figures are calculated using the average of two consecutive July 1st populations and Census Year (July 1 to June 30) period births of the year stated.

Tourism As an industry to be measured statistically, Tourism does not fit into the standard classification system used for industries. Tourism is defined by the customer, a person who travels outside his/her environment and stays no more than a year. Tourism includes part of retail trade, transportation services and many other sectors.

Unemployment/Rate The unemployed are those who during the reference week, were available for work and were either on temporary layoff, had looked for work in the past four weeks or had a job to start in the next four weeks. The concept is the same for both the Census and LFS. See The Census Dictionary and the Guide to the Labour Force Survey for more detail. Both the Census and the Labour Force Survey exclude institutional residents; in addition, LFS excludes persons living on Indian Reserves and full-time members of the armed forces. The unemployment rate is the unemployed expressed as a percentage of the labour force.

Vehicles, Licenced Passenger cars and commercial vehicles licenced for the road are reported by ICBC as of December 31, annually. The geographic assignment is based on ICBC motor vehicle licencing areas/offices and should not be taken as municipal areas.